Civic Town in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times

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1301 The city begins to register its new citizens in a parchment book; In addition, since 1303 the scribe also noted the statutes (laws) in force in Hanover; the distinction between citizens and residents remained in place until 1918.

1322 Otto the Elder, Duke of Brunswick and Lüneburg, sells the coin and the bill of exchange to the knights and the city of Hanover. The city is now allowed to sell beer by the ton.

1333 First mention of the Eilenriede, today one of the largest city forests in Europe.

1340 First mention of the Leinetor; along with the Aegidientor and the Steintor, the city now has three guarded gates in the city wall.

1349 With the construction of the market church, erected in the style of brick Gothic, the citizens began to build their third church in addition to the Kreuzkirche (1333) and the Aegidienkirche (1347) within a few decades.

Around 1350 Trade and crafts determine economic life in the city; it has about 4000 inhabitants.

1357 The city builds the Beguine Tower as part of the city fortifications opposite Lauenrode Castle.

1371 Great privilege: Dukes Wenzel and Albrecht of Saxe-Wittenberg recognize Hanover's unlimited ownership of the city forest; they transfer ownership of the ducal castle of Lauenrode to the citizens, who destroy it as a symbol of foreign violence.

1373 The city begins with the expansion of the Landwehr: Horse Tower (1373), Döhren Tower (1382) and Lister Tower (1387), landmarks in the townscape that are still visible today, are built.

1392 The sovereigns make concessions on rights and freedoms to the estates, the prelates and the knights, who are now organized in an estate-based power.

1426 Hanover concludes a pact with 14 cities between the rivers of Elbe and Weser to protect trade and defend against common enemies.

1438 The city comes into sole possession of the right to mint coins. The shamrock appears as a sign on the coins; later you will find it on the city coat of arms.

1440 Konrad von Sarstedt, lord of the Marktkirche, donated his books to the city and thus laid the foundation for the city library.

1448 After unrest in the city, the citizens agree that the council of the old town now consists of four merchants, one bone cutter, one baker, one shoemaker, one blacksmith, and four representatives of the so-called community, the citizens who are not bound to a guild. The 32 members of the jury, led by four elderly people, also take part.

1455 The market wing of the town hall with two typical North German brick Gothic stepped gables has been completed.

1490 Duke Heinrich the Elder, the sovereign, attacks "his city" in order to conquer it. As early as 1486 he had the Döhren Tower burned down. Centuries later, the saga of "Hanover's Spartans" was born, telling the story of the city's heroic rescue.

1526 Brauknecht Cord Broyhan, who comes from what is now the district of Stöcken, invents a light beer that becomes one of the city's export hits. Since 1450, only the owners of the main plots in the old town have been allowed to brew beer. The brewers' guild consists of 317 property owners (defined around 1640).

1533 Reformation: The Old Believer (Catholic) Council has to flee to Hildesheim. The new evangelical council comes to power through a revolutionary act. The population of the old town remained exclusively Protestant until the 19th century.

1573 Adoption of a new shooting order. A new Schützenhaus is being built on Klagesmarkt.

Around 1600 Burials rarely take place in the churchyards, but mostly outside of the city at the Nikolaifriedhof.

1625 During the Thirty Years' War, Danish troops (Protestants) occupy the town while Tilly (for the Catholics) prepares the siege. The people protected behind the city walls are spared from the war; Tilly leaves without success, and the town remains unharmed until the end of the war.

1626 A third of the residents fall victim to the plague that has been raging since the end of 1625.

For further reading:

Hanover chronicle from the beginnings to the present: Numbers, data, facts. Editors Klaus Mlynek and Waldemar R. Röhrbein. Hanover 1991. History of the city of Hanover (2 vols.). Eds. Klaus Mlynek / Waldemar R. Röhrbein. Hannover 1992 / 1994.